The Pedagogical Panopticon? Pivot Parables, Praxis & Paradigms

Definition of panoptic. being or presenting a comprehensive or panoramic a panoptic view of the city

Merriam-Webster, n.d.

The Panopto User conference took place in November 2021 at the Royal Society of Medicine in London. In its most basic form, Panopto is a tool to “…record and share videos” (Panopto, 2021). However, it is much more than this. At the RAU, one way we use Panopto is to create pre-recorded lectures, particularly throughout the pivot to online learning as a result of the global pandemic.

Panopto User Conference at the Royal Society of Medicine

What is the Panopticon?

It is possible to understand the panopticon in two ways. Firstly, from an architectural perspective, the structure provides an opportunity for observation. Secondly, from a metaphorical point of view, the panopticon could be seen as a form of surveillance. The panopticon has been explored by both Bentham and Foucault. (McMullan, 2015).

(McMullan, 2015)

“The basic setup of Bentham’s panopticon is this: there is a central tower surrounded by cells. In the central tower is the watchman. In the cells are prisoners – or workers, or children, depending on the use of the building. The tower shines bright light so that the watchman is able to see everyone in the cells. The people in the cells, however, aren’t able to see the watchman, and therefore have to assume that they are always under observation”

(McMullan, 2015)

(The Audiopedia, 2016)

Perhaps reimagining the panopticon through the lens of the Panopto tool could provide an opportunity reflect on the ability to access a range of recordings and pedagogical content in an both an inclusive and accessible way. Analytics provide insights to help us improve what we do as educators. To revisit the idea of Panopto as a metaphor, we could view Panopto as a bit like a tardis, it has more capability than we realise.

After a truly inspiring key note presentation by Claire Lomas MBE (@claire80lomas) where she presented her journey after being paralysed in 2007 and what she has achieved since that time, including the Great North Run in a robotic suit, there was a panel discussion exploring hybrid learning followed by a road map presentation from the CEO, Eric Burns.

Some of the key ideas and questions were:

  1. As we move back into delivering in a face-to-face and hybrid capacity, we have an opportunity to ask what we want to keep from the pandemic practice?

2. It is important to ask ourselves, “Am I doing right be both hybrid and local audiences?”. Lets raise the parity.

3. It is important to play to the strengths of both hybrid and face-to face mediums

4. We need to use the right tool for the right task

5. What about content “living on”, the content in the sky?

6. What is equitable viewing?

7. Do we have to record everything? What is recording normativity?

Future developments include:

  1. Non linear and non sequential experiences
  2. Content tagging
  3. Re-using content in a VLE
  4. Creating deep copies
  5. Use of remote recorders
  6. Video shortcuts
  7. what could a “beautiful library” be?


Panopto (2021) Panopto (Online) Available at: [Accessed: 10 November 2021]

McMullan, T (2015) What does the panopticon mean in the age of digital surveillance? The Guardian [online] (Last updated Thu 23 Jul 2015 08.00) (Online) Available at: BST [Accessed: 10 November 2021]

Merriam-Webster (n.d.) (Online) Available at: Panoptic [Accessed: 10 November 2021]

Qiānlǐ zhī xíng, shǐyú zú xià. Laozi: Delivering online teaching in China

In the next in our series of blog posts on delivery of online teaching to Shandong Agriculture University (SDAU) Pip takes over and shares highs and lows from the first week of interactive teaching.

And remember each 10,000 mile journey begins with just 1 step (千里之行,始於足下 Qiānlǐ zhī xíng, shǐyú zú xià. Laozi.


I started working at RAU in May 2020 and immediately started on the online teaching project at SDAU in June 2020. Early in June it was acknowledged that students would not be able to return to campus and so all pre-recorded content was passed over to the SDAU team, they would take responsibility for delivering it to students. When teaching officially began on 15th June our biggest concern was the interactive sessions.

Interactive sessions using Zoom

We had changed from using WeChat to using Zoom a short time before teaching was planned to go ahead. It was time to ‘deep dive’ into exploring how to use Zoom as a platform on which interactive sessions would take place. Zoom had become used widely as a platform for remote and online learning and working throughout the pandemic. I had heard a great deal about new phrases such as ’Zoom bombing’ (O’Flaherty, 2020). Additionally, there was a great deal of discussion of ‘Zoom fatigue’ (Fosslien & Duffy, 2020). Whilst I had some experience of using Zoom before for example as a platform for delivering presentations using the chat and sharing screen features but I was not a Zoom expert and did not have experience being a ‘host’ so I felt that I needed to rapidly upskill if I was to support our lecturing staff using Zoom.

To support use of Zoom I offered ‘Zoom Drop In’ sessions to our lecturers who wanted to try out some the features before teaching went live. I was committed to exploring what ‘Zoom Literacy’ would be. When you have to teach someone else something, it is a good way of making sure you know how to use to first. I created approximately one hundred meetings so experienced my own version of ‘Pre-Zoom fatigue’. What we discovered during the first week was that it was not possible for the same host with the same account to host simultaneous meetings which prevented some of the interactive sessions from taking place on time or altogether. The error message ’The host has another meeting in progress’ became very familiar. This meant that we rapidly developed a workaround to solve the problems. For example, Chantal and Husna, the other RAU Learning Technologists created meetings. When it became clear that there were just too many parallel sessions required our IT Service Desk created some additional accounts for me to use. As a result, the timetabling process became very complex. Some of the interactive capabilities were restricted as the lecturers were not ‘hosts’. As a result, one of the Lecturers, Deepak Pathak and I decided to test out polling and break rooms in an exploratory longer case study interactive session. The two hour session involved exploring Starbucks. Deepak shared screens to reinforce the correct answers for example showing a Google Map of the location of RAU.

It was positive when the lecturing staff emailed me after their session to reflect on how it went. This helped identify ways to improve what we do for subsequent iterations of online teaching. I dropped into the majority of interactive sessions to see how teachers were using Zoom to engage students for example one of our lecturers, Nicola Cannon used a quiz format effectively.

Later on in the week I set up an online community of practice on Gateway, RAU’s Moodle VLE as part of a forum to share best practice.

“We all belong to communities of practice” (Wenger, 1998, p6)

An additional idea I had was to create a ‘sandbox’ approach on Zoom where all the Lecturers could share ideas of how to create interactive sessions without worrying about making a mistake during a live session.

I shared a Zoom webinar led by Eden Project Communities which was a ‘testpad’ for Zoom practices with Lecturers. I attended and it was great to see one of RAU’s Lecturers participate too. The session involved taking part in a breakout room as a student which was helpful to understand what the Zoom experience is like from the perspective of the student. One of the most helpful activities was a collaborative whiteboard led by host Samantha Evans where we explored games, collaborative activities, Zoom and other tools.

At this point in time we are currently starting the third and final week of teaching. My reflections are concerned with moving towards an evaluation of the project, I’ve recently created a problem-solution spreadsheet where I identified areas of development and potential strategies to overcome the problems.


Throughout the three weeks of teaching, it was intended that assessments would take place every Friday. Accordingly, I tried to develop a workflow for assessment which involved the Lecturers creating the tests with the answers and articulating what invigilation might look like with Bonnie Wang and Lola Huo from SDAU. Early on in the process we found out that 30% of the marks were for attendance. We explored how Zoom can provide attendance monitoring reports and discovered that this was possible. Another challenge we experienced was that during week two of teaching, the Department of Education of Shandong informed SDAU that examinations need to be postponed. As a result, we responded by identifying alternative dates and ways of carrying out assessment.

The SDAU project journey began with one step. We learned a great deal in a short space of time and developed ways to overcome challnges rapidly. I’m looking forward to the next steps. In future, we would like to work with JISC to explore how their transnational expertise can help us improve what we do. We attended a webinar led by UCISA on the topic of Improving online access in China and had a positive meeting with Dr. Esther Wilkinson, Baoyu Wang and Anne Prior from JISC about how we can work together in a constructive capacity. JISC have recently launched a pilot to explore what quality online education looks like for Chinese students (JISC, 2020).

A huge thank you to Marieke Guy, Xianmin Chang, Steve Finch, Bonnie Wang and Lola Huo for their hard work and support to make the project happen.

In the next post we’ll look the final week of teaching delivery and lessons learnt.

By Falling We Learn to Go Safely, Chī yī qiàn, zhǎng yī zhì,吃一堑,长一智